Displacement

Displacement is defined as a change in offender behavior, along illegitimate means, which is designed to circumvent either specific preventive measures or more general conditions unfavorable to the offender’s usual modus operandi.
Five are the possible forms of displacement: spatial, temporal, target, tactical, and offense (or functional).

Spatial:

offenders switch from targets in one location to targets in another location;

 

Temporal:

offenders change the time at which they commit crime;

 

Target:

offenders change from one type of target to another target type;

 

Tactical:

offenders alter the methods used to carry out crime;

 

Offense:

offenders switch from one type of crime to another;

 

Offender (replacement):

different crimes concentrate in the hands of specific offenders.

 

 

Convergence

The concept of convergence is parallel to that of displacement. The absence of crime prevention efforts or, more in general, favorable conditions to the offender’s usual modus operandi, may cause crime to converge at a particular place, time, target, offense or tactic.
Six are the possible forms of convergence: spatial, temporal, target, tactical, offense (or functional), and offender.

Spatial:

offenders concentrate on targets in one particular location;

 

Temporal:

offenders converge in a specific moment to commit crime;

 

Target:

offenders concentrate on the same type of target;

 

Tactical:

offenders converge on a method used to carry out crime as well as different crimes;

 

Offense:

offenders concentrate on one offense;

 

Offender:

different crimes concentrate in the hands of specific offenders.